Morality, the Vaccine to Envy

Angry Wet ChickenIn reading the news today, under the heading of “equity,” we find masturbation taught to first graders, hardcore porn taught to high schoolers, and San Francisco, CA., sliding into lawlessness and chaos.  Honestly, I felt my mind trying to explode; yet, life must go on.  In several previous posts, I have described how equity is a mask for envy.  For example, sexual grooming of the innocent comes from people envious of the innocent.  The district attorney in San Francisco is envious and uses his envy to gain power and lord that power over those who elected him.

The Church of JESUS CHRIST of Latter-Day Saints, in their book of scripture The Doctrine and Covenants, Section 121, verse 39, has an applicable declaration.

We have learned by sad experience that it is the nature and disposition of almost all men, as soon as they get a little authority, as they suppose, they will immediately begin to exercise unrighteous dominion” [emphasis mine].

Detective 2For those interested, “unrighteous dominion” is considered to be oppression, pride, vain ambitions, and a host of other contention-increasing actions designed to stay in “power” where the exercise of authority can be abused.  For example, the district attorney and staff in San Francisco were informed by those who elected the DA to power that the crime and the lawlessness in the city were hurting them. The DA and staff are reported to have claimed those raising concerns were racist.  The governmental leaders in San Francisco consider themselves as having authority. Yet, they refuse to acknowledge that their “authority” comes from the governed and was granted through the electoral process and can be taken back.  Hence the verse quoted is an excellent description of what is being witnessed today at every level of government.

Various sources define morality; in fact, morality has been considered a philosophical debate, and much is written on this topic.  For this reason, the definition of morality is as follows:

Morality is the differentiation of intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper. Morality can be a body of standards or principles derived from a code of conduct from a particular philosophy, religion or culture, or it can derive from a standard that a person believes should be universal.”

I am not here to dictate what is and is not moral between you, your conscience, and your supreme being worshiped.  However, I will emphasize that America was founded upon the morals of Judeo-Christian theology, and these morals have been a solid anchor in the chaotic push and pull of beliefs and morals across time.  I mention this because that definition of morality opens the doors for people to insist that sexually grooming young children is morally acceptable because they believe that sexual grooming should be universal.  Planned Parenthood, GLAAD, and several other groups believe that sexual grooming and stealing the innocence of youth is required because they personally envy children their innocence.

ModestyBelieve it or not, sex is NEVER free; there will always be consequences.  The 1960s sexual revolution has done more harm globally than any other revolution or clash of arms in history, bringing us back to the topic rather forcefully; morality is the only vaccine to envy.  But, who decides the morality of a nation, a state, a country, or a city?  The electorate as a collective voice selects the morality of that area.  The electorate decides the laws through the ballot box in a representative government.  In a non-representative government, the king, monarch, dictator, etc., dictate the morality of the population, which is one reason why old countries have histories where immorality was rampant as the people followed the examples of the leaders, not the leader’s words.  Want a history lesson in morality and how people copy a leader’s morality, look no further than King Henry VIII of England.

Social Justice Warrior 3Circling back again to how morality is the vaccine for envy, provided the morals involved in supporting morality are selected carefully and exemplified by leaders.  In the discussion on morality, philosophers question if there are absolutes?  Absolute right and absolute wrong, or are morals a gray area where time and social pressure keep everything gray?  Depending upon your appetite and your ability to control your appetites tends to set your moral convictions.

5 Illegal Drugs That Doctors Once Prescribed As Miracle CuresFor example, Playboy and Hustler have made billions of dollars selling sexually explicit content to the masses.  Some participate in pornography; others refuse pornography.  Those who choose to imbibe in pornography live a fantasy life where no woman will ever be good enough to meet the pictures witnessed and the lurid content from the magazines selling appetite suppression.  Both sides of the morality issue will complain they deserve attention and should be free to express their rights.  Both are using the same tool, envy, to make their moral stand become a legal standard.

Who wins and who loses?  Why?  These questions get to the heart of the problem and identify why morality is a vaccine for envy.  Morality, where all men (including women) are equal, would see the chains of pornography and set a moral standard to limit the content to adult audiences.  But, every 10-year old knows a friend whose dad has a subscription and has seen a Playboy or Hustler magazine.  Is this a failure of the law or moral codes; no, it is a failure of parents and parenting.  Yet, society will consider this a social problem. The K-12 educators will become involved in peddling worse to your children, all because of curiosity, failed parenting, envy, all of which stem from moral problems and morality breakdowns in social systems.

Exclamation MarkAs a kid, I remember the fierce debates over convenience stores being allowed to sell adult content, video stores carrying adult movies, and the continued fight over how much is too much in an R-rated, PG-13 rated, and G-rated movies.  Why were these fights and debates occurring; the lude and loose morality of the 1960s perverted sex into being “free,” and morality took a back seat to legal freedoms without accountability and responsibility.  Consider the gargantuan awards against cigarette manufacturers; why were these awards so high, poor moral choices, envy, and a refusal to accept that the daily choice of smoking 5-45 cigarettes is going to cost you your health as a consequence.

Sure, medical professionals peddled smoking as a curative; but they also peddled mercury, heroin, cocaine, and a ton of other chemicals and poisons, and those companies never got in trouble.  So why were cigarette manufacturers singled out; envy and a lack of morality where consequences are accepted for personal behaviors.  Nobody twisted arms and forced anyone to smoke.  Yet, the cigarette manufacturers have been forced to pay for advertising to prevent smoking, smoking cessation classes, and a host of other programs by legal mandate, for the moral failures of people in society.Are You Sure Grandpa Never Took Heroin? You May Be Surprised | BoredomBash

Is the connection clear?  Envy breeds bad case law, which enables poor moral choices without consequences.  Except, the consequences for personal choices cannot ever be escaped!  Therein lay the issue and the answer.  I do not care what moral code you choose to follow, provided that moral code does not infringe upon another person’s rights and liberties; believe who, what, and where you will.  Just understand that your moral code comes with consequences that others should never have to pay for.

Knowledge Check!Equality in the world, since the 1960s, has been a mask for envy.  Through the power of envy, people have become discontent, disabled, and disconnected from morality and the consequences of immoral behaviors.  America stands on a tipping point where envy is concerned, and if we, the citizens who can understand, cannot persuade, educate, and correct this trend line, disaster looms large!  We must recognize that the path of envy, in all its nicer sounding, feel-good imitations, is part of the problem we face!  Yes, I believe in liberty, freedom, the inalienable rights of man.  But freedom, liberty, and the rights of man are not government benefits to be doled out at the whims of bureaucrats.  It is not more government we need when morality is threatened by envy, but less!

© 2021 M. Dave Salisbury
All Rights Reserved
The images used herein were obtained in the public domain; this author holds no copyright to the images displayed.

NO MORE BS: Civility – Plasticized and Abused

Hunter Biden went to church this weekend but stopped the motorcade mid-trip for coffee and bagels.  No regard for other people traveling, no respect for those in the motorcade, no concern for how a mid-motorcade stop would look, and zero care from the President!  Just so Hunter knows, when you travel in a Presidential Motorcade, you are NOT a private citizen who can stop anywhere without implications!

Theres moreWe have National Guard troops sleeping in a parking garage, and the commander in chief cannot even take enough time to address their housing, but heaven forbid Hunter Biden should not have his coffee and bagels on his way to church.  Abysmal behavioral disconnects were infuriating under President Obama; a repeat under President Biden is disgraceful, detestable, and downright demoralizing.  But, wait, there’s more!

The AP has the bitter cherry for the crap sundae news piece.  A bitter hit piece on Pres. Trump declaring civility had returned to Washington DC with the inauguration of President Biden.  As a child, I often watched Pres. Reagan navigating the rocky shoals of Washington DC and wondered where respect, modesty, civility, and common sense were in politics.  As an adult, I have witnessed both sides of the political spectrum call for civility and then act like churlish rubes.  If this is acceptable “civility,” I want more incivility after the pattern established by President Trump!

The media sycophants in the White House, the flunkey talking heads on the news programs, the lickspittles with megaphones, the kowtowers in the House and Senate, the craven fawners in the Supreme Court, all leave me wanting to grab an airsick bag and projectile vomit my lunch!  2015, along comes a non-politician, speaks well when treated well, can fight when he is abused, and does not talk or act like the cronies and toadies we have abhorred.  All the media could do was take a bitter hater pill, slurp the Hater-Aid every morning, and devour each other’s lies, and now the media wants to celebrate a “return to civility?”  Not on my watch!

LinkedIn ImageCivility is defined as politeness in speech and courtesy in behavior.  Yet, I was raised that civility, like respect, is earned.  When someone abuses you, disrespects you, lies to your face, and stabs you in the back; offering civility and respect to that person had been forfeit, and you receive what you earned—not condoning violence, merely the action of meeting disrespect and loathing, with disrespect, and loathing.

During the Iran Contra mess, I remember watching President Reagan answer insulting and worthless questions and asked why he was not treated more respectfully as the President.  My answer: “that’s politics.”  No, that is not “politics” that is politicking, and it has become the national sport.  As a refresher, politicking occurs when politicians include activities undertaken for political reasons or otherwise promoting themselves or their policies.  Politicks is narcissism on steroids, where the personal belief that you are better than others and all else are scum to be scrapped.  Nightly, Americans have watched twelve-years of politicking, disrespect, innuendo, and plain turpitude, and I must wonder, why now should civility return?

Detective 2In reviewing the historical usage of the term civility, we might answer why the calls for civility are being made now.  From dictionary.com we find, the origins of civil in the “late Middle English: from Old French civilite, from Latin civilitas, from civilis ‘relating to citizens’ (see civil). In early use, the term denoted the state of being a citizen and hence good citizenship or orderly behavior. The sense ‘politeness’ arose in the mid 16th century” [emphasis mine].  Apparently, we have another president who considers themselves above the machinations of ordinary folk, by reason of being elected, and now wants all their citizens to exude “orderly behavior.”  Carrot and stick tyranny, using the people’s money and abusing government for self-aggrandizement and enrichment.

Tell me, where were the calls for civility back when Minneapolis was burning last spring?  Where was Biden/Harris in leading for calls of civility all last summer?  Where were the calls for orderly behavior when the media ran with the lie that President Trump won by using Russian interference?  When the public’s property was stolen by CHAZ/CHOP, who was admonishing for civility, citizenship, and politeness?  The entire primary season, those now in the seats of power, on both sides of the aisle, refused to admonish, reprimand, rebuke, or chastise the puerile behavior of terrorists. Still, these same people could always make time to insult, gossip, and undercut the President.

Even now, Portland continues to burn from the actions of terrorists, all connected to the liberal politics of the left, and none of the political leaders will support the “Rule of Law” and end the tyranny of terrorism.  Yet, everyone else is commanded to be civil, polite, kind, and accept what is being forced upon us by our political masters.  Not bloody likely!

Scared Eyes!John Pinette, the comedian, had a famous line, “My Cherub-Like Demeanor.”  Well, “My cherub-like demeanor” has been abused, beaten, and bruised enough!  Civility is respect, respect is civility, and both require a place for growth through trust.  I cannot trust a fraudulent president.  I cannot trust the media.  I cannot trust Congress.  Why should I allow my cherub-like demeanor to continue to be abused while I abase myself in the hopes that some government bureaucratic ticket-puncher will send benefits my way?

No!  Absolutely NOT!  If you want civility, act in a manner that is civil first!  Want respect, act in a manner worthy of respect.  Desire consideration for your political opinion, spew fewer lies, disrespect, and hatred.  Desire politeness and good manners show them to others first!  A bureaucrat at the Post Office by my house always treats people based upon race, I am not in the favored category, and this person’s actions are bloody reprehensible.  Why have we allowed the bureaucrats to weaponize government; because we allowed through voting those who lead the government and provide the example.

During President Obama’s years, I regularly saw “Tea-Party” demonstrations.  They were quiet, respectful, well mannered, and the media used every trick in their Cloward and Piven textbooks to denigrate and deride the Tea-Party.  The difference between the hordes of liberals protesting and the Tea-Party was 180-degrees of separation.  Hence, it is time to treat the puerile like children, the detestable as the despised they are, and the repellant as the excrement they treat others.

ToolsCivility is a grand goal to achieve, but offering courtesy and getting slapped, is not a method for progression but continued abuse.  President Trump taught well; you can disagree without resorting to violence.  You can share a cherub-like demeanor with those who respect you and treat your opposition as they treat you.  You can stand and oppose without losing the moral high ground.  That is what is needed right now!  End the liberal left’s grand ideas of superiority by reminding them they are citizens as well, and civility is first offered, not demanded without reciprocation.  It must be shared to improve anything with those who think differently.

There is no excuse for continuing the cycles of abuse while watching extremists from both parties call for that which they have no intention of offering.  President Biden has no intention of following the US Constitution, neither does Kamala Harris, Speakers Pelosi, and Schumer, or any of their ilk.  Worse, they will continue to call for that which they refuse to offer.  Tell them firmly NO!  We are not servants to government; the government is a servant to the citizens, and they should be showing civility and respect!  If they want respect and civility, they need to offer respect and civility, follow the law, and do their jobs as outlined in the US Constitution.

© 2021 M. Dave Salisbury
All Rights Reserved
The images used herein were obtained in the public domain; this author holds no copyright to the images displayed.

NO MORE BS: 14 Rules on Civility – Gen. George Washington

Washington at Valley ForgeGeneral George Washington wrote “Rules on Civility” (1887) and helped mold and model a growing social environment in America.  These 110 rules for civility also encapsulate good advice to leaders applicable today, and fourteen of them are discussed below as they bear direct application to the current societal ills.  The hope remains that in pointing out these rules, American Citizens may become more of an example, and American Society as a whole will begin to lift itself to a higher level of performance.

Rule 19:

Let your countenance be pleasant but in serious matters somewhat grave.

I worked with a manager who made the following statement about the director we both answered to, “I never know whether he is joking, jesting, or being serious.”  Having words not meet the non-verbal cues is a failure of leadership and can cause disharmony, chaos, and no end to trouble.  Model and exemplify pleasant emotions.  Never try to confuse your audience, never adopt an emotion without a purpose, and never make your audience think or wonder about your emotional state or demeanor.  More importantly, looking pleasant builds confidence in those around you to act with pleasantness and harmony, so smile, speak softly, and generate pleasantness.

Rule 25:

Superfluous compliments and all affectation[s] of ceremonies are to be avoided, yet where due they are not to be neglected.

Finest HourRule 25 speaks to offering sincere praise, showing gratitude, returning credit to the source for things that are progressing well, and accepting failure when things go poorly.  I had the displeasure of working with an officer who gave insincere praise making a lavish ceremony out of providing that insincere praise and then laughing at the person being singled out for the recognition for not knowing how to proceed correctly.  The morale of the unit was disastrous and deadly.  Several members of that group held a deep desire for a “friendly fire incident” involving this officer as the victim.  The same problems arise in society, and if left to fester, an individual’s potential is wasted, and money follows lost potential.

Don’t forget to limit ceremony, pomp, and procession to the level needed to honor the awardee without allowing the ceremony, pomp, or spectacle to exceed the degree of the award or the awardee’s comfort level.  Know the audience and limit the service to the comfort of the audience.  Thus allowing those being awarded and those in attendance to celebrate in a manner conducive to the award and an individual’s comfort level.

Rule 35:

Let your discourse with men of business be short and comprehensive.

We have all heard, and many live by the axiom, “Time is money.” This rule from Gen. Washington speaks to the need for comprehension, timeliness, and specificity.  Limit the words, tone down the rhetoric, restrict the emotional content, and get to the point, thus saving the audience’s attention and exemplifying respect for the other person in the communication.

Rule 39:

In writing or speaking, give to every person his due title according to his degree and the customs of the place.

Did you work hard for your title; yes.  Thus, reflect the respect for your title to others.  I met two different authority figures, 180-degrees apart from each other that saw this principle from opposing extremes.  One manager refused to use titles calling the whole thing meaningless while demanding respect for their rank and title.  20-year employees who had obtained great honor and respect amongst their peers received no respect from the leader who demanded respect.

The other leader cared a great deal for their title because those who had held that title before them and respected others who had earned titles for the same reason.  The second leader had higher morale, fewer behavioral problems, and loyal people who achieved greatness.  The first leader had nothing but trouble, never could reach goals and objectives, and passed the failures to produce onto others.

RememberIn our global working environment, knowing the culture and showing respect is critical to creating success.  More importantly, if you as a leader have not already cultivated respect for titles, the ability to show genuine respect for those people with titles will place you at a disadvantage and harm the businesses you represent.  Make time to learn and practice showing proper respect for those with titles.

I have been criticized many times for using titles for those others deem unworthy of the title.  For example, President’s Clinton, Obama, Bush II, and Biden.  But, I use the title out of respect for, and an acknowledgment to, all who have honorably held the title president.

Rule 44:

When a man does all he can, though it succeed[s] not well, blame not him that did it.

How many times has success been snatched from the hands of those trying, and the leader then berates, criticizes, and derides those who tried?  Since measuring individual effort is not possible, first presume everyone did their best, promoting a spirit of learning from failure and building people.  Even if the actions were thought to be malicious and vengeful, praise and support people, you never know, and in not knowing, do not assume!

I would also interject the following thought, Juran’s Rule details that when problems arise, 90% of the time, the failing process is to blame, and only 10% of the time are people to blame for failure.  Thus, look to the processes, the procedures, the methods of work for answers, employ training, and never blame people; this includes blaming yourself.

Rule 45:

Being to advise or reprehend anyone, consider whether it ought to be done in public or in private, and presently or at some other time; in what terms to do it; and in reproving show no signs of cholar but do it with all sweetness and mildness.

(Please note, the term “cholar” has had a spelling update and is now spelled “choler” and defined as showing irascibility, anger, wrath, or irritability.  From Latin is the origin cholera.)

There is a great truth hidden here; this rule mimics another axiom, “Praise in public and reprimand in private.” While speaking to timeliness, this rule allows the leader to select when and where praise and reprimand occurs.  Do not forget Rule 19 emotion is a leadership tool, not a weapon; tools guide and instruct, weapons destroy and demoralize.  Use emotion wisely or choose not to use emotion at all per the rule above, but make emotion a conscious choice!

Rule 48:

Wherein you reprove another be unblameable yourself, — for example is more prevalent than precepts.

During my military service, I had a mid-level officer that hated and punished severely those who slept on watch, for a good reason.  The problem, the officer regularly slept on watch.  The example was more prevalent than the precepts taught and destroyed morale.  Rules 19, 45, and 48 all discuss powerful leadership principles and a general theme and should be considered individually and collectively to make the lessons more powerful.  First, know yourself, then know those you aspire to lead, and finally lead well.

Rule 49:

Use no reproachful language against anyone; neither curse nor revile.

In the world today, many confuse reprimand (rebuke or admonition) with reproach (finding fault, upbraiding, blaming, censure, disgrace, or discredit), and this has led to a lot of confusion in communication.  More to the point, the leaders’ language has coarsened, hardened, and plasticized or transitioned into bluster and buffoonery instead of calm and control.

Life ValuedI know a brilliant person, photographic memory, incredible mental ability, no people skills, no technical expertise, and they possess great pride in having and not having these skills.  This person was promoted to the level of a senior officer in the US military.  During an inspection, this officer wept uncontrollably when their plan, and the inspection, went to pieces, machinery broke down, and the inspection failed.  This brilliant person could not speak to inferiors without an attitude of superiority, cursing and accusing everyone and anyone.  Leaders, especially those placed in command through rank, must understand this communication principle and this principle’s power for good and ill.

Failure to communicate remains the sole variable upon which organizational cancer metastasizes into a full-blown case of organizational chaos leading to destruction (Dandira, 2012).  Want to know why so many democratic societies are in trouble; look first to the leaders’ language.

Rule 58:

Let your conversation be without malice or envy, for ‘tis a sign of tractable and commendable nature, and in all causes of passion permit reason to govern.

The above “rule” is a choice; rather, two choices.  The first choice is choosing to speak without malice and envy as a sign of your personal nature.  The second choice is to restrict passion.  Leaders only show emotion as a tool, not a weapon.  Conversation requires a restricted passion for conveying to the audience logic and confidence in the leader and the discussion topic.

Rule 59:

Never express anything unbecoming, nor act against the rules before your inferiors.

I used to think this was common sense, and then I met two Chief Petty Officers (CPOs) in the US Navy and discovered that common sense is not very common.  These two CPO’s remarked upon everything they saw, verbally spewing whatever occurred between their two ears, and were always examples of what not to do and how not to act.  Feeling their rank and position secure, these CPOs then punished those who did not act in their manner severely, and those who replicated their actions were rewarded and protected from the consequences.  The result is that the followers exceeded the CPOs’ examples with noticeable negative results for morale, good order, and discipline.

Rule 65:

Speak not injurious words neither in jest nor in earnest; scoff at none although they give occasion.

ToolsI worked with a brilliant and incredible person who took a little time to learn and was very clumsy.  Once the topic was taught, this individual knew that task and performed it in an exemplary manner.  Because of the clumsiness and time, it took to learn, this person was always the butt of his command’s jokes, jibes, insults and was on every single petty detail possible and poorly performed those tasks.  When respected, honestly, and sincerely praised, this person performed incredible feats.  The difference amazed and shocked his command and division but did not silence these voices of derision to the detriment of the worker’s quality and depression.  Did my friend give occasion to be laughed at; certainly!  Did he deserve to be laughed at; certainly not!

Let us be doing better at controlling ourselves and exemplifying the behaviors we desire to see in others.

Rule 67:

Detract not from others, neither be excessive in commanding.

While much of Rule 67 can be considered part of Rule 65, detracting from others goes beyond the verbal haranguing of Rule 65.  Detract is to reduce in value, usually with the intent of making yourself larger.  Managers detract from their workers by taking credit for all the good and passing off all the blame.  Leaders attract the responsibility and detract the praise back to the source.

The final aspect of this rule is necessary to understand excessive commanding.  Commanding with unreasonable commands is nothing more than dominating in an authoritarian manner to the destruction of others.  Even controlling without excessive commands but with an attitude of domination can destroy.  Commanding well is an attitude of servitude coupled with a desire to build, grow, and develop people to meet their individual potential and doesn’t generally need commands but always needs guidance or, if you prefer, coaching and mentoring.

Good TimberConsider the life of a tree planted in good soil and on level ground.  The tree spends the first 10-15 years of life with a guidewire to help the tree grow straight.  Not a command and forced growth, but a guided development into growing straight and true.  People are like the tree; the leader is like the guidewire, build people through guidance or coaching, not commands and demands.

Rule 73:

Think before you speak; pronounce not imperfectly, nor bring out your words too hastily, but orderly and distinctly.

I was raised in a home where pronunciation and enunciation were as critical to speaking as spelling, and correct grammar is to writing well.  The rules included proper and logical thinking before speaking.  The process of communication is aided and abetted by correctly pronouncing and enunciating your words when speaking, after carefully thinking and crafting your desires into coherent thoughts.

Friends QuoteIn the US Army, I did not have trouble with my upbringing interfering with communication.  In the US Navy, I had nothing but problems with how I was raised interfering with communications.  One day, I spent 45-minutes being verbally upbraided by a second-class petty officer who choose to speak with no regard for the English Language rules, no understanding of grammar, and no logic.  The petty officer used Ebonics as a symbol of pride intended to confuse the receiver.  I was then referred to the Senior CPO for not listening and being disrespectful.  I explained I could not understand what was being said and was told that my understanding of language is not his understanding of language and that I am in the wrong for not working harder to show empathy to a higher-ranking person.

Remember, the second-class petty officer chose, while on duty, to speak in a manner that intentionally could not be understood and always spoke in an understandable style when off duty.  If placed into a position of authority, managerial, or leadership, that role comes with communication expectations using logic, standard English pronunciation rules, diction, and proper grammar to ensure mutual understanding.  When confusion in language occurs, it is the leaders, or managers, job to rephrase and change language to meet the listener’s understanding.

IT JokeAs mentioned, these rules form the bedrock upon which long and fruitful careers of leadership are built.  If weak in a particular rule, choose to obtain training and counsel on how to improve.  Find people exemplifying these rules and support them in their good works.  Train and develop those not employing these rules into better people, and our entire society improves.

Better still, employ a spirit of learning, which includes forgiving yourself when mistakes occur, always remain open to learning, and living to a higher level.  America, since the 1960s, has been intentionally dumbed down by the enemies of America.  Hence, everyone has the same problem; we were deliberately not instructed well, which has led to a life of lower standards.  These lower standards have created issues not foreseen by those controlling the dumbing down of society.  One of those issues and one of our most incredible tools are the same, individual choice.  Choose to live to a higher standard by learning and teaching.  Never forget, the best follower is themselves but a leader in training.

References

Dandira, M. (2012). Dysfunctional leadership: Organizational cancer. Business Strategy Series, 13(4), 187-192. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/17515631211246267

Washington, G. (2009). George Washington’s Rules of Civility (and decent behavior in company and conversation). Retrieved December 30, 2016, from http://www.digireads.com

© 2021 M. Dave Salisbury
All Rights Reserved
The images used herein were obtained in the public domain; this author holds no copyright to the images displayed.